Diifferent EV charging modes


As different regions adopted EVs simultaneously, each developed its own cables and plugs, and there’s still no universal standard for charging to this day. As a result, just like Apple has one charging port and Samsung has another, many different EV manufacturers and countries use different charging technologies.

EV charging connector types

Mode 1

Mode 1 charging cables are used to connect light electric vehicles like e-bikes and scooters to a standard wall outlet and cannot be used to charge EVs. Their lack of communication between the vehicle and the charging point, as well as their limited power capacity, make them unsafe for EV charging.

Mode 2

When you purchase an EV, it will typically come with what’s known as a Mode 2 charging cable. This type of cable allows you to connect your EV to a standard household outlet and use it to charge your vehicle with a maximum power output of around 2.3 kW. Mode 2 charging cables feature an In-Cable Control and Protection Device (IC-CPD) which manages the charging process and makes this cable much safer than Mode 1.

Mode 3

A Mode 3 charging cable connects your vehicle to a dedicated EV charging station and is considered to be the most common for AC charging. Mode 3 cables can either be built into a charging station or removable – in fact, many EV manufacturers will provide a Mode 3 cable with their new cars to enable public charging.

Mode 4

Mode 4 charging cables are used when fast charging. These cables are designed to transfer the higher power from DC (level 3) charging, must be connected to a charging station, and are often even liquid-cooled to deal with the heat.

EV charging plug types (AC)

The charging plug is a connector that you insert into the charging socket of an electric car. These plugs can differ based on power output, the make of the vehicle, and the country the car was manufactured in.

You’ll find that EV charging plugs can be mostly broken down by region and whether they’re used for AC or DC fast charging. For example, the EU primarily uses Type 2 connectors for AC charging, while the US uses CCS1 for DC fast charging.

ev charging mode